Simply put, Omics is a branch of biology that studies all the contents of a system. This suffix means (all) in Greek and Omics is derived from this suffix. For example, all the genetic content of a system (genome) is called and is called genomics. Later, this suffix was used in the words (proteome) and (proteomics), but genomics and proteomics are the most widely used words of this kind. Be. Large-scale and systematic biological information is studied in Omics and the interaction of various components of a living system (such as proteins, metabolic pathways, etc.) is studied, and finally, an understandable model of a living system is drawn. With the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2003, the focus of most biological research has shifted beyond the genome to the very important issue of the role of genes.
A new branch of Omics science that has recently come to the fore is lipidomics. Participation in the membrane and structural structure of cells, transmission, and regulation of cellular signaling, and conservation of biological energy are all examples of the importance of fats in living cells that the development of lipidomics helps to identify and control the factors that affect them. Various tools and methods for the identification and processing of fats, including methods based on mass spectrometry, spectroscopy, and chromatography, chemical, and imaging methods have contributed significantly to the further development of lipidomics. It has helped in the field of fat-related diseases and the identification of different pathways of fat metabolism and the enzymes involved in them.
Mass spectrometry and identification of biological molecules
Mass spectrometry has revolutionized the identification of biological molecules and is one of the most powerful techniques for identifying materials. This method identifies and analyzes molecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids, which are the main biopolymers (biopolymers) of living organisms. Two important advantages of the mass spectrometer, namely its accuracy and high sensitivity, have led to the application of this technique in molecular biology and research in the field of Proteomics, Metabolomics, and Genomics. This method has an effective role in understanding the functional and molecular mechanisms of cells by identifying proteins and peptides and also determining molecular complexes. In general, the use of mass spectrometry in Omics is not labeled (determining the relative amount in two or more biological samples and does not use a stable isotope in the composition) and labeled (determining the exact amount of the sample It is biological and uses the stable isotope as an internal standard and tracer.
Application of stable isotopes in omics
The isotopes used in omics technology are of the stable type and mostly include carbon isotopes, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur. In general, the application of stable isotopes in omics and biology is based on two general principles:
1- Using stable isotopes to improve quantity by internal standardization
2- Using stable isotopes as a tracer
Stable isotopes have different physical properties and the same chemical properties. Thus, molecules with stable isotope labels have the same biochemical properties. Recent advances in mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) resonance techniques have greatly improved metabolite analysis. Performing such analyzes is a significant challenge and that interpretation Analytical data. The use of stable isotopes can be a solution to overcome this limitation. For example, one of the obstacles is that many of the signals detected by mass spectrometry are unique, and given that the metabolites are derived from a specific substance, Stable isotopes are used to label this compound to be used to identify derived biological compounds. In other words, compounds labeled with stable isotopes are used as an internal standard to identify and determine the concentration of mass spectrometry data. Becomes.
Despite the stated advantages for compounds labeled for use as internal standards, full access to heavy isotopes in biomolecules is challenging due to time and cost constraints, especially for more complex organisms such as mammals. Hence, research to improve this system or invent new methods is increasing.
An isotopic tracker is a molecule that is chemically and functionally identical to the molecule under study, and by following the tracker information about the metabolism and the molecule in question is obtained. Metabolites can be determined, but when metabolism is performed with a stable isotopic tracer, both metabolite concentrations and pathway activities (eg, metabolic metabolism) can be assessed. The latter offers a much greater understanding of metabolism.
Detectors can be identified using techniques such as mass spectrometry or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR). The tracer molecule can be a compound labeled with stable isotopes, such as glucose or heavy water, which is used in most research. Marked fatty acids report fat metabolism, while the glucose tracker reflects metabolism and carbohydrate storage. Therefore, depending on the expected metabolic pathway, we choose the tracer molecule.
Use of D2O as a tracer in omics studies (lipidomics, etc.)
Heavy water was first used as a tracer for metabolic research in 1932 by Harold Urey. This research led to the formation of similar studies, one of which is the use of heavy water in the human body, which combines with body water and enters the body's metabolism by reactions in the human body in which water plays a role The most important advantages of this method are that it is predictable and reproducible. Heavy water is used to label metabolic compounds for the following reasons:
1- Isotopic exchange with heavy water
Deuterium (D) can be transported via heavy water (D2O) to C-H bonds in the main triglyceride (TG) chain during glycolysis. Also, other biomolecules, including nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and amino acids, can be deuterated in the presence of D2O through a variety of enzymatic reactions such as the pentose phosphate pathway, gluconeogenesis, and de transfer reactions. Based on this feature, this method can be used for other quantitative studies of Omics.
2- Easy and cheap access
Compared to other metabolic marking methods, isotope enrichment in target molecules is more cost-effective. Also, the ease of use and low cost of D2O make it suitable for long-term quantitative analysis in a wider range of biological systems, including plants and mammals.
The synthesis of deuterium precursors by an appropriate amount of heavy water and their subsequent composition in polymers such as deuterium alanine to protein, glucose to glycogen, fatty acids to triglycerides, and ribose moieties to nucleic acids (RNA / DNA) allow this. To study and measure a wide range of metabolic processes. The rate of disappearance of heavy water from body water is low, and the amount of enrichment of body water can be monitored and controlled by regular sampling of saliva or urine so that enrichment can be maintained steadily and regularly for several days, and this potential Provides uniqueness for measuring metabolism over hours, days, weeks or even months later and overcomes many limitations.
These unique features of D2O and extensive advances in the analysis of biochemical data such as mass spectrometry have led to the exponential popularity of heavy water use in Omics studies, especially in human research, in recent years.
Deuterium isotope has been used in many fields such as pharmacy, electronics, omics, and other advanced technologies, and over the past decades, in addition to its application in identifying the mechanisms of biological and physical reactions, major attention has been paid to D2O applications in Focused on medicine and industry. The use of heavy water in Omics studies solves many human health problems, especially in biochemical and physiological analysis, synthesis of deuterium-labeled compounds, treatment of diseases and study of drugs, nutrition, isotope dilution experiments In the body of living organisms, metabolic isotope tracking and...
"omics" , "lipidomics" , "D2O" , "stable isotope" , "heavy water" , " isotope "
You can also find other articles about the above keywords in other languages with the use of these words.
omics: In Chines: “组学 “, In Russian: омики
in Germany: Omics in Italian: Omics