What is deuterated glucose?


What is deuterated glucose?


Deuterated glucose is a kind of glucose molecule labelled with deuterium isotope. Glucose is a simple sugar found in plants. Glucose molecule can exist as an open chain as well as a ring. The natural form of glucose is D-glucose. In addition, glucose plays a vital role in photosynthesis and provides the energy needed for cellular respiration. Glucose is used in various metabolic processes, including the enzymatic synthesis of cyclohexyl α- and β-D-glucosides. It can also be used as a diagnostic tool in diseases such as diabetes and Huntington's disease.


Applications of deuterated glucose


1- Checking the level of lymphocytes

One of the uses of labelled glucose 6 and 6 is to check the level of lymphocytes. In this method, which is called lymphocyte sensitivity test, labelled glucose is injected into the patient, blood samples are taken from the patient on different days, and GC analysis is done. - MS is taken for D2 and if the amount of lymphocyte population is more, the consumption of marked glucose will increase, as a result, the intensity of D2 will increase in the GC-MS analysis, which indicates the disease in the body. As we know, lymphocytosis (increase in the number of lymphocytes) is an increase in the number of white blood cells called lymphocytes. Lymphocytes help fight diseases, so it is normal to see a temporary increase in lymphocytes after an infection.





Stable isotope labelling provides a unique picture of intracellular metabolism. Many metabolic changes leading to an accumulation or decrease in stable isotope tracer metabolite levels can provide insightful information not revealed by natural metabolomics. Nowadays, whole body glucose flux is usually determined using isotope tracer techniques. These techniques usually involve injecting a glucose isotope tracer into the bloodstream or taking a sample of blood plasma through drinking. The rate of glucose production by the body can be calculated from the enrichment measurements and tracer injection ratio. Glucose isotopologues with a stable label that are used as tracers are D-Glucose-6,6-d2, D-Glucose-1-13C, and D-Glucose (U-13C6). Finally, this detection is done by mass spectrometry.

deutrated glucose


3- DMI


For example, one of the uses of glucose labelled at positions 6 and 6 with deuterium is DMI. Deuterium metabolic imaging or DMI is an innovative MR-based method recently described to noninvasively map metabolism in three dimensions. DMI enables imaging of substrates and their metabolic products enriched with the non-radioactive and biocompatible deuterium isotope. The following diagram shows the workflow of a typical DMI study.


In addition, deuterated glucose is used in the STRIDE technique, depression treatment and pet scan


Types of synthesis methods of monosaccharides labelled with stable isotopes:


The methods used in the synthesis of these compounds include chemical, enzymatic, enzymatic, and biological methods. Using the biological method, the sugar that is obtained is completely marked, but using the synthetic method, we selectively mark only one part or part, for example [1-2H1]Glucose, [3-2H1]Glucose and [6,6-2H2]Glucose have been synthesized using reducing compounds.


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